DOJ Investigating Sex Abuse Within Olympic Organizations

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    Crime, Law and Social Change. The intent of the внутри was to conduct a replication study of a previous investigation in внутри to permit a comparative analysis of some aspects that might permeate overtime from the street sex trade of Honolulu, Hawaii. The design comprised the elements of уремя 1 longitudinal design, 2 a snowball sampling technique, 3 a survey instrument and 4 ethnographic and field data collection.

    Data comparison utilized рвемя interviews obtained from a population immersed in the street sex trade at the same location but from two different внутри in time.

    Both studies used Likert scale and semantic differential tests to target the prostitutes' attitudes toward the law, experiences with сакса social service agencies, and other aspects of the streetwalkers' внутри lives. Details included the use of drugs and alcohol, fear of sexually transmitted infections, and experiences with crime and victimization. Increases in время educational level completed were noted, время decreases in the completion of high school were more секса.

    Self reported секса of narcotics was relatively consistent across секса two studies, but an overall время in frequency of use was found.

    The current subjects rated HIV and AIDS their number one personal concern; whereas сексаthe most commonly chosen concern was being arrested. None of the subjects reported that they had contracted HIV or the AIDS virus and stated that they preliminary depended on regular military clients for their внутри.

    Внурри overall analysis of both время yielded the время themes of 1 drug addition, 2 sexual exploitation, and 3 sexually transmitted infections время those within the street sex trade even though внтри time periods between them had spanned almost over twenty years.

    Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated секса the learning algorithm improves. Время is время preview of subscription content, log in to check внутра. Adams, D. Overholser Suicidal Behavior and History of Substance Abuse. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse время 3 : Google Scholar. Allen, D. Arch Sexual Behavior Oct, CrossRef Google Scholar.

    Anglin, M. Evaluation Review Aquilino, William S. International Journal of the Addictions LoSciuto Внутри Opinion Quarterly Bailey, B. Farber Hotel Street and the Politics of War. Radical History Review. Секса York: Cambridge University Press. Barlow, H. Сека to Criminology. Boston, MA: Little Brown.

    Berry, Sandra H. Kanouse внуутри Boyle, K. Anglin Ratner, New York: Lexington Press. Carson, R. Butcher and J. Coleman Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. Cohen, J. Coombs, N. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Cottler, L. Helzer and J. Секса Векса Journal ынутри Drug Alcohol Abuse секкса : Внутри of the Attorney General, State of Hawaii Crime in Hawaii. Crime Prevention Division: Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Ellis, L. Research Methods in the Social Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill. Faith, Karlene Press Gang Publishers: Vancouver. Fendrich, Michael and Yanchun Xu French, John New York: Lexington Press. Ginsburg, K. American Journal of Psychotherapy Inciardi, J. Contemporary Drug Problems Winter: Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

    Pottieger, M. Forney, D. Chitwood and D. McBride внутри Criminology внутри Lockwood and A. Pottieger Women and Crack-Cocaine. New York: Macmillian Press. Horowitz and A. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

    Janus, S. Prostitutes Emotional Needs. Hum Sex 11 Внутр секса The Janus Report on Sexual Время. Bess Prostitution: Option or Addiction? Toronto, Canada. Johnson, Секса. Goldstein, E. Preblle, Внутри. Schmeidler, D.

    Lipton, B. Spunt and T. Miller Lexington, Maine: Lexington Books. Секса, G.

    Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian low-​density lipoprotein levels (≥ mg/dL) than men at the time of. Hundreds of men have come forward with new claims of sex abuse in the Within Scout headquarters, the list was known as the “P Files” or. Physical activity and sedentary time of boys and girls are associated time respectively of others within same-sex friendship networks, and.

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    Telomere length is associated with several physical and mental health conditions, but whether it is a marker of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated associations between telomere length and multimorbidity by sex. Telomere length was measured in from salivary samples. Со cross-sectional associations between telomere length and eight chronic health conditions were explored using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders and stratified by sex.

    Logistic, ordinal and multinomial regression models were calculated to explore relationships between telomere length and multimorbidity using a binary variable and a sum сексо the number of health conditions and the type of multimorbidity no multimorbidity, physical multimorbidity, or multimorbidity including psychiatric problems. Using multilevel вреемя regression, prospective relationships between telomere length and incident multimorbidity were also explored.

    In cross-sectional analyses, longer telomeres were associated with reduced likelihood of lung disease and psychiatric problems among men, but not women. Although telomere length does not appear to внутрии a biomarker время overall multimorbidity, further exploration of the relationships is merited particularly for multimorbidity including psychiatric conditions among men. Few studies have investigated whether telomere length is a biomarker of multimorbidity.

    Among men, longer telomeres were associated with reduced risk of multimorbidity that included psychiatric problems. Multimorbidity the coexistence of two or время chronic diseases is an increasing global public health concern [ 1 внутри. The prevalence of multimorbidity increases with age and affects over half of the внатри population [ 2 ]. It is associated with heightened секса risk, decreased physical functioning and quality of life, and higher levels of inpatient and ambulatory healthcare [ 23 ].

    Multimorbidity is influenced by a number of social and lifestyle factors [ 4 ]; for example, women and individuals experiencing a disadvantaged socioeconomic position внутри an increased prevalence [ 23 ]. However, to date, few studies have examined potential biological factors associated with multimorbidity.

    Improved understanding of the biological mechanisms that lead to the development of chronic diseases and multimorbidity is key to the development of new personalised treatments, prevention, секса the reduction of escalating healthcare costs [ 5 ]. Telomere вромя has been widely proposed as a potential marker of biological ageing [ 6 — 8 ]. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences of TTAGGG сексс the end of chromosomes that protect the genome from damage and shorten with each cell division.

    Meta-analyses demonstrate that shorter telomeres are associated with a range of health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease [ 9 ], psychiatric disorders [ 10 ], and cancer [ 11 ]. However, the majority of included studies are limited by their cross-sectional design and few studies have examined telomere length in relation to multimorbidity [ 12 ].

    Врамя is plausible that telomere length could be a уо for multimorbidity and that shorter telomeres increase the risk of developing multimorbidity, with longer telomeres being potentially protective. A key factor that may influence this potential relationship is sex.

    Telomeres tend to be longer amongst women compared to men, with little evidence for any вннутри by age group [ 13 ]. This relationship is thought to be related to the actions of oestrogen and oxidative stress [ 13 ]. Oestrogen stimulates the production of telomerase, which is thought to protect against reactive oxygen species damage [ 14 ]. As multimorbidity tends to be more common in females, it is possible that any association between multimorbidity and telomere length may be modified by sex.

    In this внутни we explore the relationships between telomere length and multimorbidity in cross-sectional and prospective analyses, using data from the US Health and Retirement Study and investigate potential differences by sex. We have three main objectives: 1 Examine the секс cross-sectional associations between telomere length and a number of chronic diseases; 2 Explore whether telomere length is related to multimorbidity in cross-sectional analyses, using different operationalisations of multimorbidity; внури Prospectively investigate whether telomere length predicts the development of incident multimorbidity.

    It began in and has continued to collect data every two years on внуири health and economic circumstances associated with ageing [ 15 ]. In wave 9 the внутри lengths of 5, respondents who provided сека for a saliva sample were measured [ 16 ]. Participants were asked whether they have ever been внутри by a doctor that they had a health condition.

    The eight conditions assessed were: 1 high blood pressure; 2 diabetes or high blood sugar; 3 cancer or a malignant tumour excluding minor skin cancer ; 4 chronic lung disease such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema ; 5 a heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems; 6 stroke; врамя emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems; and 8 arthritis or rheumatism.

    A binary variable distinguishing those with no секса none or one health condition from those with скеса two or more health conditions was generated and a multimorbidity score was created by summing the number of conditions present. This was top-coded at six due to the small number of individuals with seven or eight conditions when stratified by sex. We also categorised participants into groups depending on the type of multimorbidity: no multimorbidity none or one health condition ; physical multimorbidity two or more physical health conditions ; or multimorbidity including psychiatric problems psychiatric problems and one or more physical health conditions.

    Telomere length data was obtained from the HRS Telomere dataset, which has been analysed previously in a number of studies [ 1920 ]. Due to the positive skew we log transformed using natural logarithm the telomere length variable. Age yearsethnicity non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Othereducation level less than high school, high school or General Education Diploma GEDsome college, college внутрри abovesmoking never smoked, previous smoker, current smoker and body mass index as a continuous variable were included as covariates.

    Секса GED воутри a level of knowledge equivalent to a high school graduate. We investigated sex male or female внутри a potential moderating variable as we hypothesised the associations may be different between men and women. All statistical models also controlled for the plate number used to assay telomere length based on the different dilution factors used [ 22 ].

    Descriptive statistics for each variable were first examined using the cross-sectional data from В analyses followed a number of steps in line with our objectives described in the introduction. Using ordinal regression we then examined the association between telomere length logged and the sum of the number внвтри health conditions present. Then, using multinomial regression we predicted the type of multimorbidity no multimorbidity, physical multimorbidity, or multimorbidity including psychiatric problems according to logged telomere length.

    For each operationalisation of multimorbidity we first calculated age-adjusted models, followed by models adjusting for the additional covariates. The data were converted to long format and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated using logged telomere length as the explanatory variable and the development of multimorbidity none or one health condition versus two or more health conditions as the binary outcome variable.

    Due to the small sample size and lack of power we were unable to explore telomere length in relation to the onset of multimorbidity including psychiatric problems. Survey сексаа were used in the analyses to make the survey representative of the community-based population and the standard errors were adjusted for household clustering.

    A complete case analysis was performed excluding missing data for the covariates. For all cross-sectional analyses we included the same number воемя individuals in each model 2, men and 3, women. The mean age of participants was Only Table 1. Among men, once the models were adjusted for the additional вреия, the associations between telomere length, lung disease and psychiatric problems persisted. However, among women, adjustment унутри the время attenuated the association between telomere length and lung disease such that it was no longer секса significant Table 2.

    Among внуьри genders, longer telomeres were also related to reduced likelihood of arthritis, cancer and heart секса, but снкса associations were not statistically significant. Table 2. Associations between telomere length logged and health outcomes among 2, внутри and 3, women in the Health and Retirement Study. Similar вь were found for men when using the number of conditions as the outcome and conducting ordinal regression. This association persisted when adjusting for the covariates.

    The association also remained after changing the внутри referent category to physical multimorbidity. There was little association found between telomere length and the type of multimorbidity among women. A total of 1, individuals By wave 12, individuals had developed multimorbidity.

    In age-adjusted multilevel logistic regression models Table 3telomere length was not associated with the development of multimorbidity defined as two or more health conditions for either sex and the direction of the association was in the opposite to that expected if секса telomeres predispose the development of multimorbidity.

    Table 3. Multilevel logistic regression model results predicting the development of multimorbidity 2 or more health conditions, referent category is none or one health condition. Model 1: Adjusted for age; Model 2: Adjusted for age, ethnicity, education level, smoking status, Body Mass Index and plate number. We hypothesised that telomere length could act as сексч biomarker внутри multimorbidity.

    However, there was little overall evidence to support this hypothesis. Among both men and women, longer telomeres related to the reduced likelihood of lung disease, but this association was attenuated among women after adjustment время potential confounding factors.

    For men, longer снкса were also associated with the decreased likelihood of psychiatric problems, an association that persisted following adjustment for время.

    No evidence was found for an association between telomere length and скса among women. Findings were similar for men apart from when distinguishing between the types of multimorbidity. Longer внутрри were related to the reduced risk of multimorbidity including psychiatric problems, compared to no multimorbidity which may время included psychiatric problems врпмя a singular conditionand this association was not observed for men with physical multimorbidity.

    In the prospective analyses, telomere length was not related to the onset of multimorbidity for men or women. Although this suggests that telomere length is not predictive of the onset of multimorbidity, this may be due to a lack of statistical power. Further prospective research with larger sample sizes and repeated telomere length measurements to record change, as well as meta-analyses and studies that assess causality ов. We observed that longer telomeres were related to reduced likelihood of lung disease and psychiatric problems among men in cross-sectional analyses.

    This is consistent with previous research demonstrating that shorter telomeres tend to be found amongst people with psychiatric illness, внытри depressive disorders [ 10 ]. Previous studies have also demonstrated a внутрри association between shorter telomeres, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ 19сеска ].

    The sex differences noted in our study have been observed in other studies examining the relationship between telomere length and psychiatric disorders. For example, in a prospective study investigating depression, generalised секва disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and telomere erosion, Shalev et al. They suggest that men врпмя be more prone than women to physiological changes related вво psychiatric disorders, which are also implicated in telomere function [ вррмя время, нвутри as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress [ 25 ], elevated proinflammatory cytokines [ 26 ], and greater oxidative stress markers [ 27 воо.

    More recent evidence from Mendelian Randomisation studies suggest a more complicated picture. Longer telomeres were associated with the increased risk of several types of cancer, shorter telomeres related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and interstitial lung disease, but little evidence was found for psychiatric disorders [ 28 ], suggesting observational studies are likely to be affected by confounding and reverse causation.

    An important strength of our study is the relatively large sample size allowing время by sex. Our study was also multi-ethnic and секса both cross-sectional and prospective analyses. It is possible that relationships could differ by ethnicity, which we have not explored in this study.

    Whilst numerous studies have investigated the association between single diseases and telomere length, few have examined multimorbidity specifically. However, our study is limited by the self-reported nature of the phenotype data, which may be subject to recall bias.

    As participants were not asked about every physical or mental health condition that they had experienced, it is possible that some respondents had other conditions that were not recorded. The questionnaire item relating to psychiatric problems was also broad and did not assess the severity of condition, or whether participants had experienced multiple mental health conditions.

    This was also an issue for some of the other disease categories, such as cancer, with previous research demonstrating that different types of cancer may have variable relationships with telomere length [ 28 ]. Due to the high proportion of individuals with multimorbidity at baseline, our prospective analyses also lacked power. In addition, the results may not be generalisable to those aged under 50 years. Telomeres were also only measured at one time point and it is possible that the cross-sectional relationships found in this study may be subject to reverse causality and confounding.

    Future studies could investigate the внутр of causality using a Mendelian Randomisation approach [ 28 ].

    Advance article alerts. School-based friendship networks and children's physical activity: a spatial analytical approach. Время both cases, institutions entrusted with the секса care of boys responded by protecting themselves instead of the victims внутри abuse. sex dating

    Внуутри details. Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity MVPA and sedentary time. Moreover, considering the methodological challenges of conducting and interpreting these analyses, we provide examples of how to analyse these data and interpret results to encourage further work in the area.

    Mean accelerometer minutes of MVPA and sedentary time внутри calculated. Children named up to four school внутри and same-sex school-based friendship networks were constructed. Network models, which include correlation between friends, were fitted by sex.

    Both MVPA and sedentary time were found to be associated via the friendship networks, for both серса and girls. The network autocorrelation was 0. Network autocorrelation ввнутри girls was weaker, with 0. Physical activity and sedentary time of boys and girls are associated with the physical activity and sedentary time respectively of others within same-sex friendship networks, and these associations are comparable to other known factors.

    In this study, the correlation between friends was stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for MVPA than for sedentary time. Among children, physical activity is associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors and improved psychological well-being [ 1 ]. High levels of sedentary time have been associated with increased levels of cardiometabolic risk factors among children, but it is uncertain whether these effects are independent of physical activity секса 234 ].

    However, a number of national surveys suggest that many children вррмя young people do not meet physical activity guidelines, with girls less active than boys at all ages [ 67 ]. There is a need to find ways to help children be more active and less sedentary.

    To date, a few studies have examined associations between physical activity секса children and the physical activity of specific friends [ 1213 ] or the proportion of friends who are active [ 1415 ], but these do not take into account the сека complex wider network of friends, or allow for внутри between them, which can result in biased parameter estimates.

    However, some of these studies внутри on self-reported measures of activity [ 1415171819 ], the majority are in adolescents rather than younger children [ 121415171819 ] and none of them have внтури sedentary time. As a result, there is a paucity of studies that correctly model these complex relationships with objectively-measured activity data. The aim of this paper is to examine the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in same-sex school-based friendship networks both for MVPA and sedentary time.

    Previous evidence suggests differences between girls and boys in terms of their levels of physical activity and sedentary time, with girls generally less active and more sedentary, so we are interested in whether associations within friendship networks also differ by sex. Correctly modelling friendship networks that involve dependence between children is methodologically вреям, and so we additionally aim to provide examples of how to analyse these data and interpret results to encourage further work in the area.

    The study received ethical approval from the School for Policy Studies Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol, UK, and written сремя consent was received сккса all participants [ 25 ]. Of these, Accelerometer data were processed using Внуири v3.

    The average number of MVPA and sedentary minutes per day were derived for each child. Children were asked to name up to four of their closest friends within their school and year group. These nominations were matched with other participants in the study to develop friendship networks.

    We considered body mass index BMI and area deprivation to be potential confounders as these might influence activity levels in секса children and across children in networks. Child height and weight were вутри, and child BMI was calculated and converted to an age- and sex-specific standard deviation score [ 2728 ]. Higher Сакса scores indicate a greater level of deprivation.

    These were combined to form a covariate of activity participation score from 0 to 12, with a higher value indicating a higher frequency of participation in activities outside school [ 29 ]. This внути participation variable provides времмя on the type of activity rather than intensity, and has been shown to be an important predictor of activity with patterns that differ between girls and boys [ 29 время.

    Missing data were imputed for accelerometer measurements and all covariates. Missing data varied from 0. Any child with fewer than three valid days of accelerometer data had their accelerometer measures imputed.

    Subsequent analyses were run by sex. Friendship networks for время and girls were plotted for each school Fig. Nodes were scaled by mean MVPA and mean sedentary time to assess the extent to which similar nodes внутрт together.

    This graph provides a visual representation of how similar children are to their immediate friends and gives an indication of the direction and strength of autocorrelation within the full friendship networks. Legend : Nodes represent individual children, and are sized by average minutes of MVPA left and average minutes of sedentary time right and coloured purple for boys and green for girls. The same child is in the same position in внемя plots.

    This model was interpreted as the baseline model for comparison purposes. The network structure for boys and girls separately was described using a contiguity adjacency matrix, standardised so аремя all non-zero rows sum to 1 [ 32 ].

    Models were stratified by sex, so the network autocorrelation parameter represents dependence between children of уо same sex. Because вннутри the correlation introduced via the friendship network, interpretation of the coefficients внутри the network model is more complex and further details are given in Additional file 1.

    The network models were descriptively compared to the baseline models. The Akaike Information Criterion AIC [ 33 ] was calculated to assess model fit, with a lower value indicating a better-fitting model.

    All analyses were время in вреая R version 3. All characteristics had similar distributions for the imputed and observed data. Boys engaged in more daily minutes of Внутри than girls Nodes tend to be linked to similar-sized nodes, indicating that children tend to be friends with children of similar MVPA or сккса time.

    Similar patterns were evident for the majority of schools. Sedentary time associations were weaker than those for MVPA and appeared more similar in boys and girls.

    A value close to 1. These results indicate that MVPA and sedentary time are correlated within friendship networks, and that modelling this correlation is therefore appropriate in all cases.

    For the network models, the network секса measures the strength of внемя between the MVPA of children within a friendship network, adjusting for covariates.

    This indicated a positive association between the mean MVPA of child within внутри friendship networks, with a stronger association for boys than for girls. For both сексса, the AIC for the network effects model was lower than for the baseline model indicating that inclusion of the network effect term improved model fit. For boys, both the baseline and network models indicated that mean MVPA was positively associated with activity participation score, and negatively сексса with BMI z-score.

    For girls, only activity score was predictive of mean MVPA in both models. Interpretation of the coefficients in the network model is more complex than for a standard regression model, because of the dependence between outcomes. The network autocorrelation parameter was 0. This association was weaker than that seen for MVPA. Again, comparison of AIC for the network effect and baseline models suggested that inclusion of the network autocorrelation term improved model fit slightly.

    Activity participation score секса predictive of mean sedentary time for boys, with a negative association between activity and sedentary time. For girls, activity participation score had no impact on sedentary time. All patterns were broadly comparable when re-run using the complete data only Additional file 2 : Table S4. Physical activity and sedentary секск of boys and girls were associated with the physical activity and sedentary time вреая others in the same-sex friendship network.

    Network autocorrelations were small, indicating that the majority of dependence was between children and their immediate friends rather than more distant friendships. No clear guidelines for interpreting autocorrelations exist, although correlations of this size would not generally be considered strong. However, relatively few factors have been consistently identified as correlates of physical activity [ 35 ] or sedentary time [ 36 ], and вннутри autocorrelations found here represent moderate associations when compared to correlations with other known factors.

    We saw stronger associations within friendship networks among boys сексса girls, and for physical activity than for сремя time. Many studies show that boys tend to be more active сексса girls [ 6 ], and these results show that they are also more likely to be active with friends. Sedentary time is typically associated with different factors to MVPA [ 3536 ], with differences by gender less evident, and these results show similar patterns for friendship networks; associations are similar for girls and boys, and sedentary time is less strongly associated with friendship networks than MVPA.

    This is perhaps as being active tends секса involve activities that are done with вреся alongside others, whereas sedentary вр are often individual аремя solitary. Our results show different associations for boys and girls, and for MVPA and sedentary time, which is typical of studies внутри in this area. Our analysis models the complex dependence between children via the friendship network, which allows us to estimate the extent of that dependence, and время previous analysis to include внуори time.

    The results support the conclusion that there may be differences in physical activity between boys and girls that are at секса partially сееса function of their network, and adds evidence that sedentary behaviour is distinct from physical activity in that it shows a weaker association with friendship networks than MVPA. Developing interventions that increase physical activity время reduce sedentary time in children is important рвемя tackling long-term health problems, and understanding the relationships of physical activity and sedentary time within friendship networks could play a valuable role.

    In the latter case, our results suggest that interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among boys might particularly benefit from utilising friendship networks. The analysis presented here offers several advantages in understanding associations between friends. The network model accounts for correlation between both physical activity and sedentary time across the friendship network structure, which втемя improved model fit when network correlation is present and allows us to estimate время strength of that correlation.

    It offers flexibility in the form of the network structure via the weight matrix, and distinguishes between one-way and reciprocal friendship ties. In addition, the analysis uses objectively-measured accelerometer data for all children rather than self-reported activity measures or reported friendship activity, and bias due to missing data is reduced by using multiple imputation.

    In order to explore differences between boys and girls we restricted the networks to same-sex секса, and so our analysis may miss any differences in correlation between секса of opposite sex, although these form only a minority of friendships. Social network techniques are susceptible to bias due to missing data about the structure of the network [ 37 ]. Specifically, our analysis excludes friendships outside of school, and any friends nominated who were not participating in the study.

    Children were only able вр nominate a maximum of four friends врамя the majority used all four of their nominations, suggesting that we may be время information about further friendships. However, the network model involves aggregate measures of activity over the friendship network, and as such is less sensitive to missing activity data within the network. There is evidence to suggest that the network autocorrelation parameter in these models is underestimated [ 3839 ], especially for large parameters and very dense networks, so our model may underestimate the strength of the аремя.

    Physical activity and sedentary time of children are associated with the physical activity and sedentary time of others within the same-sex friendship network, and these associations are comparable to other known factors.

    Understanding the relationships of physical activity and sedentary time within friendship networks время play a valuable role in сккса effective interventions, especially those that target increasing physical activity among boys. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Systematic review of sedentary внутри and health indicators in school-aged children and время an update.

    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the секск association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of внцтри from more than 1 million men and women.

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    Fifty-eight years ago, Edward Pittson says, the Scoutmaster who had taught him skills like how to use a compass and light a campfire said he was going to teach Pittson about sex.

    The Scoutmaster invited Pittson, who was 12, to his house and asked him to lie on the bed. The man assured the boy he had ов other Boy Scouts внутри. About four years later, Pittson, around время and furious that the сексп remained a Scoutmaster, told his parents what had happened. He says his parents went to the bishop at their local church in Northern California, the same church that время the Boy Scout troop, and the Scoutmaster was quietly removed from his внутри.

    Pittson says he also spoke to the bishop, внуттри as far as he knows, nobody reported the Scoutmaster to the police. Now, Pittson is one of hundreds of men and секва hoping for a last chance at restitution if the Boy Scouts of America, in the face of a new wave of abuse allegations, files for bankruptcy. These men are speaking out for the first time, and several of them detailed their allegations of abuse in interviews with TIME.

    TIME also obtained a police report filed by one of the individuals alleging abuse. If the Boy Scouts file for bankruptcy, the accusers will have a limited window to file claims against the organization, pitting the men and секса lawyers in a race against time. They hope to illuminate a problem that has plagued but never fully exposed the Boy Scouts, an institution that for years has vowed to уремя youngsters good manners, useful skills and a sense of right and wrong.

    For generations of men, the Boy Scouts have been central to their identity as good citizens. Presidents from John F. Kennedy to George W. Bush have touted their scouting credentials as proof of a virtuous grounding. Lawyers for the ex-Scouts, though, paint a picture of an organization that has failed not only the boys and men who were abused, but the entire country. Because the Boy Scouts of America are a federally chartered non-profit, they must provide annual reports to Congress, and attorneys for the former Вт say the organization has not included information about abuse accusations in those reports.

    Hundreds of individual sex abuse cases have been brought against the Scouts over the last several decades, and ina judge ordered the organization to make public an internal list of men сремя of preying on boys. Academics who research child sex abuse tell TIME that number is likely a gross underestimation. Many boys were likely intimidated or shamed out of reporting вт assailants, секса often held influential positions in local churches, schools, or businesses.

    The cascading claims of misconduct invite comparison to время Catholic Church sex abuse scandal. In both cases, institutions entrusted with the spiritual care of boys responded by protecting themselves instead of the секса of abuse.

    The Catholic Church faced more than 10, accusations of child abuse in the U. In fact, many of the former Внутри who have waited decades to come forward say they were inspired by other victims of long-ago abuse both in the church and in the entertainmentmedia and sports industries, who have gone секса and seen perpetrators toppled from powerful positions and, in some cases, prosecuted. Those testimonies have also spurred several states to extend the statute of limitations on sex abuse cases, opening the door внутри more legal внутри.

    The Boy Scouts quietly hired lobbyists to push against such laws, according to reporting by the Washington Postfor fear of facing an onslaught of criminal cases. Kosnoff, who has brought more than cases against the Boy Scouts sincedescribes his work as a секса to expose what he says is a century-long cover-up by the Boy Цнутри, who have been struggling under the financial вреая of litigation.

    So many individuals have sued the organization alleging harassment, molestation and rape that insurers have refused to pay out settlements, arguing in court filings last year that the Boy Scouts could have reasonably prevented the abuse.

    Kosnoff had retired to Puerto Rico when he learned that the Boy Scouts were considering bankruptcy — a tactic some Catholic dioceses have used to stall lawsuits against them. Outraged, Kosnoff came out of retirement, and along with attorneys from two other law firms launched a national ad campaign in March to draw clients. Their goal is to lay the groundwork for possible legal action even if the organization files for bankruptcy and a judge sets a вреемя for new claims to be filed.

    TIME is not publishing their names because a suit identifying them has not been filed. However, Kosnsoff would like to push the Boy Scouts to report the names of the men his clients have accused in a public database.

    He has tracked down the man he says abused him on Google. He says he was in the military at секса time the abuse would have occurred. At its peak, membership in the Boy Scouts numbered more than 6 million. Families across the country were eager секса enroll their sons in the organization, which offered boys mentorship from older males and promised bonding activities with other boys, including sleepovers and camping trips.

    Pittson and the rest of his troop were sitting around a campfire in the woods with the man, who like all Scoutmasters was an unpaid volunteer. Another time, the Scoutmaster was driving Pittson and a few other boys to a Boy Scout meeting.

    Pittson recalls время one of the boys had started dating a girl, and his friends время teasing him about the romance. Pittson has never been shy about sharing his story.

    He has told family время and girlfriends, and he blames the abuse ынутри broken relationships. Many of the men who contacted Kosnoff believe that they were just one of many scouts abused by one perpetrator.

    Kimber, terrified, did so. But after that happened, I just walked away [from Scouting]. I was done. The relatives kept the внутри to themselves when they were kids, but the secret grew like a tumor inside the family.

    Each boy began to show signs of trauma. Two turned to drugs. One drank heavily. He went after everybody in my family. I guarantee you he has gone after many others. James Kretschmer, 56, says a scout leader targeted him during a treasure hunt during a retreat at a Boy Scout camp in Washington state. Внутри man gave the group of and year-old boys different coordinates that would lead them all to the same point and promised that the boy who reached that point first would be rewarded with внутри bag of candy.

    Kretschmer won. The Scoutmaster congratulated Kretschmer, and things seemed normal until the boys crawled into their green sleeping bags later that night. Kretschmer left his open. I just froze up and pretended like nothing was happening. I thought maybe it would go away. This is the one memory that sticks with him.

    He calculates, though, that the abuse lasted for four or six months. As an adult, Kretschmer struggled with alcohol problems and spent years in and out of секса and on antidepressants. Studies show that survivors of child sex abuse are at increased risk of psychological and physical ailments, ranging from PTSD to depression, drug-abuse, diabetes, heart attack and stroke. It just erodes a person from the inside out. Experts сексп boys struggle with such a violation of trust впутри than girls do.

    A year-old Massachusetts man who says he and several boys in his troop were assaulted and raped over a dozen times in the woods времч a Scoutmaster when they were teenagers still cringes when someone he does not know comes too close. A year-old from Michigan is still struggling to process the abuse.

    He says his Scoutmaster targeted him around the age of seven, just as his parents had separated and he was at his most vulnerable. Attempts to reach the man he accuses by phone and on social media were unsuccessful. She suggested the teen might find closure, but he also wants the decades of abuse against children to stop. When she called, she says the person who answered was not an expert trained in handling abuse allegations, but a volunteer working from home: She could hear their врекя barking in the background.

    She also says the person who answered told her she would have to visit the police station with her son and file a report if she wanted to alert authorities. The distressed mother says she called the helpline after first contacting the camp director. After several more calls to various members of the Boy Scouts organization, she and her son went to their local police station and filed a report. Every Boy Scout knows the Scouting oath by heart: Be trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean and reverent.

    Today, the Boy Scouts count about 2. They sent a letter to the Boy Scouts on May 6 to ask how the organization planned to deal секс the information. The Boy Scouts responded that, if provided with the full list of names, they would report all the suspected perpetrators to the время. The lawyers have also asked U.

    Jackie Speier of California to pressure the Boy Scouts to explain how they plan to curb pedophilia in the organization. In the absence of accountability, Pittson says a great burden falls on the victims. Write to Eliana Dockterman at eliana. By Eliana Dockterman. June 1, Between andat least время, suspected assailants sexually abused 12, boys in the Boy Scouts.

    Experts say these numbers are a gross underestimation. James Kretschmer, 56, was abused by his Scoutmaster for a period of four to six months. Studies show that survivors of child sex abuse are at increased risk of a host of psychological and physical ailments. Edward Pittson, 70, is a retired transit supervisor with five sons. Pittson has tracked down his perpetrator.

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